Acesso Aberto e Conhecimento Científico: Entre a Res Publica e o Modelo de Negócio. Uma Revisão da Literatura

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17231/comsoc.39(2021).2756

Palavras-chave:

Acesso aberto;, conhecimento científico;, res publica;, modelo de negócio

Resumo

A discussão sobre aquilo que o acesso aberto pode dar à ciência polarizou-se nos últimos anos. Se, por um lado, a primeira década do novo milénio nos trouxe um entusiasmo que poderemos considerar como bastante abrangente na comunidade científica, relativamente às grandes potencialidades de abertura do conhecimento, da sua comunicação e partilha, e dos mecanismos de participação cidadã no processo científico, os últimos anos trouxeram-nos um novo debate que aborda a derivação do acesso aberto para um novo modelo de negócio. Ao sustentarmos o presente artigo numa extensa revisão da literatura de um tema que é, ainda hoje, residual nos estudos que intersectam as áreas da comunicação de ciência e da economia da ciência, propusemo-nos sintetizar as principais razões evocadas de um lado e do outro. Entre os pontos positivos destacados na relação entre acesso aberto e conhecimento científico, destacam-se o potencial difusor do acesso aberto na disseminação de conhecimento, o aumento da visibilidade desse conhecimento produzido, o envolvimento da sociedade e dos profissionais no processo científico, através de lógicas de participação cívica e interpares, a maior eficiência e interação com benefícios para os próprios projetos de investigação, a retenção dos direitos de publicação pelos autores, a redistribuição de recursos, e a maior transparência de um modelo de natureza mais escrutinadora. Entre os pontos negativos, destaca-se essencialmente a incapacidade de combater uma espécie de economia da ciência paralela que tira proveito do acesso aberto e das lógicas de sofreguidão da produção académica para instituir as designadas article processing charges, pouco transparentes e com valores e taxas de publicação muitas vezes superiores aos vários milhares de euros, que atentam contra os princípios da ciência aberta e que são geradoras de desigualdades de oportunidades dentro da própria comunidade científica.

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Publicado

2021-06-30

Como Citar

Quintanilha, T. L., & Trishchenko, N. (2021). Acesso Aberto e Conhecimento Científico: Entre a Res Publica e o Modelo de Negócio. Uma Revisão da Literatura. Comunicação E Sociedade, 39, 203-222. https://doi.org/10.17231/comsoc.39(2021).2756